The Germany in which Heidegger lived was a country in a constant state of war and division. Only a few years before his birth, modern Germany was formed out of formerly feuding regions. Germany is a country with few natural borders, leading its leaders to believe that the best way to maintain Germany was a strong military. These military forces often collided. Heidegger came to desire a state ruled by an elite group of soldier-philosophers. He came to distrust the public tastes, modernity, and democratic institutions. The National Socialists matched his vision. [For further details, Click here.]
1900 Without informing Japanese Prime Minister Yamagata, the Japanese foreign minister obtains a pledge of neutrality from Germany in the case Japan and Russia should go to war. He then petitions the emperor for permission to declare war on Russia immediately.[See: Countdown to Infamy: Timeline to Pearl Harbor.]
1905 Albert Einstein, of Switzerland publishes a daring new theory; the special theory of relativity. It overturns all accepted ideas about the law of physics. Instead of mass and time being fixed quantities, Einstein asserts that they can alter; at speeds approaching that of light, mass increases, objects shrink, and time slows down. For example, a clock moving at the speed of light would not only get heavier but run more slowly. Einstein's theory, which redefines our conception of the universe, declaring that all measurements of space and time depend on the motion of the observer. A moving object at close to the speed of light would appear to a stationary observer to be half its actual length, but to the person moving at the same rate, its length would not change. [For further details, Click here.][See: Why Do They Hate the Jews? by Albert Einstein.] 1914 World War I: Various:
1914 List Regiment (Sep 1-Oct 7): Infantry recruit Adolf Hitler's regiment continues a short but intensive basic training program, which is held in the premises of a large public school on the Elizabeth Platz in Munich. Hitler receives the first uniform of his life; basic greenish-grey with an "RIR 16" sown in red unto the epaulettes and a red stripe down the side of the trousers. The trousers are tucked into new leather boots, topped by a thick leather belt around the waist of the uniform jacket. [For further details, Click here.] US Secretary of State Bryan protests Britain's Order of Council and the confiscation of cargoes from US ships. (See August 20) Note: The US has begun to profit from the war and is sending cargoes to all belligerents including Germany, which is getting its goods funneled through neutral countries. (THP) [For further details, Click here.]
On the 26th and 27th of September the Germans made fresh demonstrations in the direction of Termonde, obviously with the intention of crossing the Scheldt at this point. On the 26th they encountered at Andeghem (some two or three miles to the southwest of Termonde) a small body of Belgian infantry, which, although it had no artillery to support it, resisted them heroically until the arrival of re-enforcements, which put the Germans to flight in the direction of Alost. The battle of Lebbeke was fought on the following day under similar conditions: the Belgians were at first weak in numbers, but resisted valiantly despite heavy losses; then reenforcements arrived. [For further details, Click here.]
1915 World War I: List Regiment: Gefreiter Adolf Hitler's 16 Reserve Infantry Regiment [List Regiment] occupy a position at Fromelles—pictured above in a drawing by Hitler—on a level field with water channels, willow trees and willow stalks; in the distance towards the enemy lines lies an insignificant wood with barbed wire entanglements. Under the direction of their defense-minded commander, Lieutenant General Gustav Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, the regiment works ceaselessly day and night to further fortify their position at Fromelles while fighting off repeated assaults by the enemy. [For further details, Click here.]
Hitler and his fellow dispatch runners
1916 World War I: List Regiment: (Sep 24-26): Gefreiter Adolf Hitler's 16th RIR is relieved by the 19th Bavarian Infantry Regiment, which is just back from the Somme, and whose men are telling horror stories about the fighting there. The 16th RIR are given a two day rest before being sent off to the Somme themselves. [For further details, Click here.]
1917 World War I: List Regiment: (September 11-30): The regiment remains on light duty, guarding a camp near Mulhouse in Alsace, the only section of the front on German soil. During this slow time, not only will Hitler and his comrades get a well-deserved respite from the rigors of trench warfare, but the heavily censored news from the Front seems to be improving as well. The news of the collapse of the Russian Front and the further defeats of Italian arms is, however, tempered by the news that German munitions workers have gone on strike. This mix of events give an impression that the war on the Front is going well, but being undermined by defeatism on the home front. [For further details, Click here.] 1918 World War I: Various:
Battle of the Meuse: In the final major battle of the war, the Allies plan an offensive from Ypres to Verdun. Some 896,000 American troops join with 135,000 French soldiers in an attack on a sector between the Argonne Forest and the Meuse River. It is the largest battle fought up to this time, casualties will mount to 120,000. (THP) [For further details, Click here.]
List Regiment: (August 21-September 27): Gefreiter Adolf Hitler attends a signals training course in Nuremberg. [For further details, Click here.]The Americans sweep through Vauquois and Mont-faucon but their drive slows down as the Germans rush in fresh reinforcements. 1923 Weimar: Hitler's political instincts again serve him well as the German Government formally proclaims the end of its miserably failed policy of passive resistance in the Ruhr; a policy Hitler always ridiculed. The Voelkischer Beobachter is banned for the first time and a state of siege is declared in Germany. Gustav Kahr is appointed State Commissioner and given dictatorial powers.
1931 The Assembly of the League of Nations adopts a General Convention to improve the Means of Preventing War.1934 United States: Black nationalists in New York City begin boycotting Jewish owned shops and businesses. 1937 Brothers of the Hungarian branch of the Order of the New Templars (ONT) found the small priory of Szent Kereszt below Vaskapu Hill at Pilisszentkereszt in northern Hungary. (THP)
Sudeten Crisis:Hitler makes an angry speech at the Berlin Sportspalast, attacking Czechoslovakia's alleged mistreatment of its German-speaking citizens.
I have made Mr Benes an offer, which contains nothing but the realization of what he himself assured us would be done. The decision is in his hands! Peace or war! Either he accepts this offer and finally gives the Germans their freedom, or we will come and take this freedom ourselves! The world should take note that in four and a half years of war and in the long years of my political life there is one thing of which no one has ever been able to accuse me: I have never been a coward. [For further details, Click here.]In London before leaving for America, Max Warburg meets with George Rublee—an American lawyer and head of the Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees, and Lord Winterton at the British Foreign Office. (THP) 1939 World War II: Various:
The German Foreign Office to the German Embassy in the Soviet Union:
The Estonian Chief of Staff informed me of the Russian demand for an alliance. He stated that a naval base at Baltischport and an air base on the Estonian islands were demanded by Russia. The General Staff recommended acceptance of the demands as German aid was most unlikely, hence the situation could only become worse. On September 25 and 26, Russian aircraft carried out extensive flights over Estonian territory. The General Staff gave orders not to fire on aircraft in order not to prejudice the situation.Holocaust: German local commanders in the vicinity of the German-Soviet line of demarcation issue a second order for Jews to leave their villages and cross over to the Russian side of the River San. Thousands of Jews are uprooted, robbed, and locked out of their homes and apartments. Hundreds are killed in the process. (THP) The Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa—AK) is formed in Warsaw. 1940 World War II Various:
United States: President Roosevelt announces that the US is not going to warand disbands the War Resources Board shortly before the election of 1940. He also embargoes US exports of scrap iron and steel. First peacetime draft law in US history: It is decided behind closed doors by the powers that be, that the draft bill will call for the registration of at least 17 million men.
Many of the soldiers drafted in October 1940 threatened to desert once the original twelve months of their service was up. Many of these men painted the letters "O," "H," "I," and "O" (OHIO) on the walls of their barracks in protest. These letters were an acronym for "Over the hill in October," which meant that the men intended to desert upon the end of their twelve months of duty. Desertions did occur, but they were not widespread. [For further details, Click here.]From official notes of the German naval war staff:
Naval Supreme Commander (Doenitz) with the Fuehrer. Naval Supreme Commander presents his opinion about the situation: The Suez Canal must be captured with German assistance. From Suez, advance through Palestine and Syria; then Turkey in our power. The Russian problem will then assume a different appearance. Russia is fundamentally frightened of Germany. It is questionable whether action against Russia. from the north will then be still necessary. [For further details, Click here.]Church and Reich: German Army Bishop Rarkowski issues a pastoral letter to the armed forces saying, in part:
The German people, who for one year now have been fighting against their detractors, have an untroubled conscience and know which nations before God and history are burdened with the responsibility for this gigantic struggle that is raging now. They also know who has wickedly provoked this war. They know that they themselves are fighting a just war, born of the necessity of national self-defense, out of the impossibility of solving peacefully a heavy and burdensome question of justice involving the very existence of the state and of correcting by other means a burning injustice inflicted upon us. Note: The average German soldier had no way of knowing whether Holland and Belgium had actually violated their neutrality, as alleged by the Nazi propagandists, and thus provoked the German attacks in May. Most took the word of their government and their priests. (THP)Church and Reich: Between September 1940 and July 1941, the property of more than 100 monasteries is confiscated by the Germans and the monks and nuns expelled from their houses. (THP)
Japanese troops attack French Indochina. 1941 World War II: Various:
The Free Frenchgovernment in London under General de Gaulle signs an alliance with the Soviet Union.
Roosevelt's personal representative at the Holy See, Myron C. Taylor, forwards to Papal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione a memorandum of the Jewish Agency for Palestine that reports mass executions of Jews in Poland and occupied Russia, and told of deportations to death camps from Germany, Belgium, Holland, France, Slovakia, etc. Taylor asks if the Vatican can confirm these reports and if so, "whether the Holy Father has any suggestions as to any practical manner in which the forces of civilized public opinion could be utilized in order to prevent a continuation of these barbarities." (THP)
Nazi official August Frank issues a memorandum containing a great deal of operational detail on how Jews should be "evacuated". [For further information, click here.]
1943 World War II: Goebbels publishes his Thirty Articles of War for the German People:
This war is a defensive war. It was forced upon us by our enemies, who wish to destroy the possibility of life and growth for our nation. If they succeed, our present generation will have lost everything that countless German generations have won over millennia of struggle by hard work and sacrifice. Our nation's history will end in shame and disgrace. [For further details, Click here.]1944 World War II: Various:
Netherlands: Operation Market-Garden ends in failure, with heavy losses to the British airborne forces engaged.
Montgomery ordered the 1st Airborne to break out of Arnhem and rejoin the Allied lines to the south. Out of 10,000 men dropped into Arnhem, only 2,300 came out. 1,400 were dead and over 6,000 were prisoners of war. Operation Market-Garden had failed, and with it the opportunity to end the war in 1944. The Dutch population suffered the most, and the coming winter would see mass starvation of civilians. [For further details, Click here.]Field-Marshal Smuts to Churchill:
[T]he more firmly Russia can establish herself in the saddle now the farther she will ride in the future and the more precarious our holdfast will become. Our position in the Mediterranean and in Western Europe must be strengthened rather than weakened. In neither of these areas we may have the support of Russia, or even Gaullist France. From this standpoint the future dispositions as regards Germany assume an importance for us which may be far greater and very different from that which they appear to have at present. A new situation will be created for us in Europe and the world by the elimination of Germany through this war. This calls for a searching reconsideration of our entire foreign policy for the future. While a World Organization is necessary, it is equally essential that our Commonwealth and Empire should emerge from this ordeal as strong and as influential as possible, making us an equal partner in every sense for the other Big Two.
1946 Nuremberg Tribunal: The justices continue to discuss verdicts in the Major War Criminals Trial. (See: 30 September 1946)
1950 Korean War: United Nations troops recapture the South Korean capital of Seoul from the North Koreans. (AP)
1953 United Kingdom: Sugar rationing comes to an end in Britain after nearly 14 years.
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